Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

プロフィール

ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

最新記事

最新コメント

最新トラックバック

月別アーカイブ

カテゴリ

天気予報


-天気予報コム- -FC2-

Admin

上記の広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。
新しい記事を書く事で広告が消せます。

意外な名所に驚き、まだ「品川神社」におりまして。。。
では本殿におまいりするとしましょう(^0^)/

shinagawa_shrine08.jpg

・・・なかなかご立派で。。。まぁ、家康クンゆかりの地ですから^^
今日は珍しく、あの「因縁」もなさそうで。。。(←別に祀られているわけじゃないので・笑)

shinagawa_shrine09.jpg

ちなみに「しめ縄」「賽銭箱」「提灯」といった、通訳ガイドさんにとっては説明てんこもりなものが多いっスね~。

で、その横には。。。

shinagawa_shrine10.jpg

これまた、こじんまりとしていながらご立派で^^

さて、この先なんですが。。。実はココ、もう一つ名所がありまして(一_一☆)

shinagawa_shrine11.jpg

「板垣退助」さんのお墓もあるんですっ!

shinagawa_shrine12.jpg

で、もちろんあの「名言」の石碑もありますね~(嬉)

shinagawa_shrine13.jpg

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はその「板垣退助」さんで、いってみましょう!

Itagaki Taisuke was appointed a Councilor of State in 1869, and was involved in several key reforms, such as the abolition of the han system in 1871. As a sangi (councillor), he ran the government temporarily during the absence of the Iwakura Mission.

However, Itagaki resigned from the Meiji government in 1873 over disagreement with the government's policy of restraint toward Korea (Seikan-ron) and, more generally, in opposition to the Choushuu-Satsuma domination of the new government.

In 1874, together with Gotou Shoujirou of Tosa and Etou Shimpei and Soejima Taneomi of Hizen, he formed the Aikoku Koutou (Public Party of Patriots), declaring, "We, the thirty millions of people in Japan are all equally endowed with certain definite rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring and possessing property, and obtaining a livelihood and pursuing happiness. These rights are by Nature bestowed upon all men, and, therefore, cannot be taken away by the power of any man." This anti-government stance appealed to the discontented remnants of the samurai class and the rural aristocracy (who resented centralized taxation) and peasants (who were discontented with high prices and low wages). Itagaki's involvement in liberalism lent it political legitimacy in Japan, and he became a leader of the push for democratic reform.

Itagaki and his associations created a variety of organizations to fuse samurai ethos with western liberalism and to agitate for a national assembly, written constitution and limits to arbitrary exercise of power by the government. These included the Risshisha (Self-Help Movement) and the Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) in 1875. After funding issues led to initial stagnation, the Aikokusha was revived in 1878 and agitated with increasing success as part of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement. The Movement drew the ire of the government and its supporters. In 1882, Itagaki was almost assassinated by a right-wing militant, to whom he allegedly said, "Itagaki may die, but liberty never!"

・・・という感じでしょうか。

ちなみにココで水をさすようですみませんが。。。実は板垣さん、「叫んでいない」んですよね~。

明治15年4月に発行された「板垣君凶変詳聞」とか、5月発行の「自由党総理板垣君遭難詳録」には、

  静かな声にて「諸君、嘆ずるなかれ、板垣退助死するも日本の自由は滅せざるなり」と発す。

とあるんですが、これが明治43年発行の「自由党史」には、

  板垣、刺客を睥睨(へいげい)し、叫んで曰(いわ)く「板垣死すとも自由は死せず」と。
  神警の一語、満腔(まんこう)の熱血と共に迸り出て、千秋万古にわたって凛冽(りんれつ)たり。。。

・・・なんでそんな大げさなことに(笑)

まあとにかく、自由を願う志は高く評価され、後に紙幣の「顔」。。。それも「50銭札」に「100円札」と2度もなっているんですよね~。。。

・・・でも、不思議なもんですね。。。お金って、なかなか「自由にならない」もので(笑)
スポンサーサイト

ボロボロだった日光編が終わり、やっと都内に戻ってまいりました m(_ _)m
ただ何か消化不良な感が否めず。。。

で、やってきたのは「品川神社」。
実はココ、家康クンと非常にゆかりのある場所なんです(一_一☆)

shinagawa_shrine01.jpg

え?何がかって?。。。それは後のお楽しみ、ってことで^^
では早速おじゃましてみましょう!(^-^)b

shinagawa_shrine03.jpg

・・・それにしても、立派な鳥居っスね~。
両方の柱には「登り龍」もあしらわれて、勇壮な感じがします。

で、階段を登りきると。。。

shinagawa_shrine04.jpg
shinagawa_shrine05.jpg

・・・鳥居が多すぎ(笑)

あ、でもその先には。。。何か「舞台」のようなものもありますっ!

shinagawa_shrine06.jpg

ではせっかくなので、お清めをして参拝でもしていきましょうかね。。。と、そこには見慣れたあの「紋」がっ!

shinagawa_shrine07.jpg

・・・そうなんです、実はココ。。。

shinagawa_shrine02.jpg

家康クンがあの「関が原の戦い」に向かう際、戦勝祈願を行った神社なんですね~。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はちょっと長いですが「関が原の戦い」で。。。家康クンが豊臣の重臣たちと距離を置き始めたあたりから、いってみましょう!

Tokugawa Ieyasu was no longer rivaled in terms of seniority, rank, reputation and overall influence within the Toyotomi clan after the death of Regent Maeda Toshiie. Rumors started to spread stating that Ieyasu, at that point the only surviving ally of Oda Nobunaga, would take over Hideyoshi's legacy just as Nobunaga's was taken. This was especially evident amongst the loyalist bureaucrats, who suspected Ieyasu of agitating unrest amongst Toyotomi's former vassals.

Later, a supposed conspiracy to assassinate Ieyasu surfaced, and many Toyotomi loyalists, including Toshiie's son, Toshinaga, were accused of taking part and forced to submit to Ieyasu's authority. However, Uesugi Kagekatsu, one of Hideyoshi's appointed regents, defied Ieyasu by building up his military. When Ieyasu officially condemned him and demanded that he come to Kyoto to explain himself before the emperor, Kagekatsu's chief advisor, Naoe Kanetsugu responded with a counter-condemnation that mocked Ieyasu's abuses and violations of Hideyoshi's rules, in such a way that Ieyasu was infuriated.

Afterwards, Ieyasu summoned the help of various supporters and led them northward to attack the Uesugi clan, which at that moment were besieging Hasedo, but Ishida Mitsunari, grasping the opportunity, rose up in response and created an alliance to challenge Ieyasu's supporters, also seizing various daimyo as hostages in Osaka Castle.

Ieyasu then left some forces led by Date Masamune to keep the Uesugi in check and marched west to confront the western forces. A few daimyo, most notably Sanada Masayuki, left Ieyasu's alliance, although most, either bearing grudges against Mitsunari or being loyal to Ieyasu, stayed with him.

Mitsunari, in his home Sawayama Castle, met with Otani Yoshitsugu, Mashita Nagamori, and Ankokuji Ekei. Here, they forged the alliance, and invited Mouri Terumoto, who actually did not take part in the battle, to be its head.

Mitsunari then officially declared war on Ieyasu and lay siege to the Fushimi Castle, garrisoned by Tokugawa retainer Torii Mototada on July 19. Afterwards, the western forces captured various Tokugawa outposts in the Kansai region and within a month, the western forces had moved into the Mino Province, where Sekigahara was located.

Back in Edo, Ieyasu received news of the situation in Kansai and decided to deploy his forces. He had some former Toyotomi daimyo engage with the western forces while he split his troops and marched west on the Tokaidou towards Osaka Castle.

Ieyasu's son Hidetada led another group through Nakasendou. However, Hidetada's forces were bogged down as he attempted to besiege Sanada Masayuki's Ueda Castle. Even though the Tokugawa forces numbered some 38,000, an overwhelming advantage over the Sanada's mere 2,000, they were still unable to capture the strategist's well-defended position. At the same time, 15,000 Toyotomi troops were being held up by 500 troops under Hosokawa Fujitaka at Tanabe Castle in Wakayama Prefecture. Some among the 15,000 troops respected Hosokawa so much they intentionally slowed their pace down. Both these incidents resulted in a large number of Tokugawa and Toyotomi troops not to show up in time at the battlefield of Sekigahara.

Knowing that Ieyasu was heading toward Osaka, Mitsunari decided to abandon his positions and marched to Sekigahara. On September 15, 1600, the two sides started to deploy their forces. Ieyasu's eastern army had 88,888 men, whilst Mitsunari's western army numbered 81,890. There were about 20,000 arquebusers and other forms of hand-held gunners deployed in the battlefield, corresponding to over 10% of all troops present.

Even though the western forces had tremendous tactical advantages, Ieyasu had already contacted many daimyo on the western side, promising them land and leniency after the battle should they switch sides. This led some western commanders holding key positions to hesitate when pressed to send in reinforcements or join the battle that was already in progress.

Mouri Hidemoto and Kobayakawa Hideaki were two such daimyo. They were in such positions that if they decided to close in on the eastern forces, they would in fact have Ieyasu surrounded on three sides. Hidemoto, shaken by Ieyasu's promises, also persuaded Kikkawa Hiroie not to take part in the battle.

Even though Kobayakawa had responded to Ieyasu's call, he remained hesitant and neutral. As the battle grew more intense, Ieyasu finally ordered arquebusiers to fire at Kobayakawa's position on Mount Matsuo in order to force Kobayakawa to make his choice. At that point Kobayakawa joined the battle on the eastern side. His forces assaulted Yoshitsugu's position, which quickly fell apart as he was already engaging Toudou Takatora's forces. Seeing this as an act of treachery, western generals such as Wakisaka Yasuharu, Ogawa Suketada, Akaza Naoyasu, and Kutsuki Mototsuna immediately switched sides, turning the tide of battle.

The western forces disintegrated afterwards, and the commanders scattered and fled. Some, like Ukita Hideie managed to escape, while others, like Sakon was shot and wounded by a rifle though it's unknown if he died from it, Otani Yoshitsugu committed suicide. Mitsunari, Yukinaga and Ekei were some of those who were captured and a few, like Mouri Terumoto and Shimazu Yoshihiro were able to return to their home provinces. Mitsunari himself would be executed.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

そう、品川神社で勝利を祈願し、いざ、天下分け目の戦(いくさ)に、行くさ(←しょーもないオチ!・笑)

何だか深川に長居しすぎたようで。。。(^-^)y
そろそろおいとまいたしましょうかね~。

・・・と、見つけたのは。。。

sanjuusangendo01.jpg

「三十三間堂」!? w(゜o゜)w
コレって、京都にあるんじゃないんですか~???

sanjuusangendo02.jpg

そう、実はこの三十三間堂、正式には「江戸三十三間堂」と言いまして。。。江戸時代にココにあったそうなんです。

京都東山の三十三間堂(蓮華王院)で、「通し矢」が流行したのを受けて、寛永19年(1642年)11月、弓師備後という方が幕府より、当初浅草の土地を拝領し、京都三十三間堂を模した堂を建立したんだそうデス。翌寛永20年4月の落成の際には、徳川家光さんの命により、旗本の吉田久馬助重信さんという方が射初め(いぞめ)を行ったと言われています。

その後元禄11年(1698年)の勅額火事で焼失しましたが、元禄14年(1701年)にココ深川に再建されました。しかし明治5年(1872年)、江戸三十三間堂は廃止されることになり、お堂は再び破壊されてしまったそうです。。。

ちなみに、広重さんの「名所江戸百景」には、ココが「深川三十三間堂」として描かれています。

edo_sanjuusangen.jpg

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は本家本元の「三十三間堂」で、いってみましょう!

Sanju-sangen-dou is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama District of Kyoto, Japan. Officially known as "Renge-ou-in" (蓮華王院), or Hall of the Lotus King, Sanju-sangen-dou belongs to and is run by the Myoho-in temple, a part of the Tendai school of Buddhism. The temple name literally means Hall with thirty three spaces between columns, describing the architecture of the long main hall of the temple.

Taira no Kiyomori completed the temple under order of Emperor Go-Shirakawa in 1164. The temple complex suffered a fire in 1249 and only the main hall was rebuilt in 1266. In January, the temple has an event known as the Rite of the Willow (柳枝のお加持), where worshippers are touched on the head with a sacred willow branch to cure and prevent headaches. A popular archery tournament known as the Tooshiya (通し矢) is also held here on the same grounds since the Edo period. The duel between the famous warrior Miyamoto Musashi and Yoshioka Denshichirou, leader of the Yoshioka-ryuu, is popularly believed to have been fought just outside Sanju-sangen-dou in 1604.

The main deity of the temple is the Thousand Armed Kannon. The statue of the main deity was created by the Kamakura sculptor Tankei and is a National Treasure of Japan. The temple also contains one thousand life-size statues of the Thousand Armed Kannon which stand on both the right and left sides of the main statue in 10 rows and 50 columns. Of these, 124 statues are from the original temple, rescued from the fire of 1249, while the remaining 876 statues were constructed in the 13th century. The statues are made of Japanese cypress. Around the 1000 Kannon statues stand 28 statues of guardian deities. There are also two famous statues of Fujin and Raijin.

・・・という感じでしょうか。。。で、柱の陰から覗くイメージで、本日のタイトル「家政婦は見た!」・・・じゃなくて「観音像は見た!」にしてみたんですが、何か?(笑)

それにしても、その三十三間堂で思い浮かぶのは、あの童謡。。。

♪きょう~のきょう~の大仏さんは、天火で焼~けてな~
三十三間堂は、焼け残った~。。。

・・・あ、そうだ、その大仏さんに、会いに行きましょう!(←唐突に新たな展開へ・笑)

さて、そろそろ「富岡八幡宮」を後にして。。。ん、んんっ!?

tomioka_hachimanguu19.jpg

こんな所に「鉄橋」があるんですかぁ???
あ・・・ホントだっ!w(゜0゜)w

tomioka_hachimanguu20.jpg

橋が架かっていた当時の上の写真が味わい深いので、何となくただ「放置」されてるみたいで(T-T)

おや、他にもあるんですね~^^

tomioka_hachimanguu22.jpg

そもそも、何でこんな所に架かってるんでしょうか?

tomioka_hachimanguu21.jpg

・・・ははぁ~っ、なるほど。。。しかもコレ「重要文化財」なんですねっ!(^0^)/
しかも渡ることもできるんです!

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの「橋」にちなんで、「日本橋」をば。

Nihonbashi is a business district of Chuo, Tokyo, Japan which grew up around the bridge of the same name which has linked two sides of the Nihonbashi River at this site since the 17th century. The first wooden bridge was completed in 1603, and the current bridge made of stone dates from 1911. The district covers a large area to the north and east of the bridge, reaching Akihabara to the north and the Sumida River to the east. Otemachi is to the west and Yaesu and Ginza to the south.

The Nihonbashi district was a major mercantile center during the Edo period: its early development is largely credited to the Mitsui family, who based their wholesaling business in Nihonbashi and developed Japan's first department store, Mitsukoshi, there. The Edo-era fish market formerly in Nihonbashi was the predecessor of today's Tsukiji fish market. In later years, Nihonbashi emerged as Tokyo's predominant financial district.

The Nihonbashi bridge first became famous during the 1600s, when it was the eastern terminus of the Nakasendou and the Toukaidou, roads which ran between Edo and Kyoto. During this time, it was known as Edobashi, or "Edo Bridge." In the Meiji era, the wooden bridge was replaced by a larger stone bridge, which still stands today. It is the point from which Japanese people measure distances: highway signs that report the distance to Tokyo actually state the number of kilometers to Nihonbashi.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

では重要文化財の鉄橋を、渡ってみましょう!(嬉)

tomioka_hachimanguu23.jpg

なるほど、2つの工法で作られているのが、当時は画期的だったんですね~。
この橋から、日本の橋作りは変わっていった、そのきっかけなんですか。。。(^-^)

tomioka_hachimanguu24.jpg

ずっとずっと、未来を見守る「鉄橋」でいてほしいです。。。

・・・そう、絶対に「撤去(てっきょう)」しないでね(笑)

さて、いよいよこの「富岡八幡宮」の本題へ。。。
実はココ「江戸勧進相撲」の発祥の地なんですね~。

まずは本殿でお参りをば。。。

tomioka_hachimanguu11.jpg

で、ふと脇に目をやると。。。(>_<)

tomioka_hachimanguu10.jpg

あ、、、もうおみくじは結構デス(笑)
では先へと進みましょう!

・・・と、こんなのがあります^^

tomioka_hachimanguu12.jpg

「横綱力士碑」って書いてありますね~(^-^)/

tomioka_hachimanguu14.jpg

あ、こりゃぁ江戸時代のお相撲さんですね(驚)

tomioka_hachimanguu15.jpg

そもそも、ココ「富岡八幡宮」は、江戸勧進相撲発祥の地として有名でして。。。江戸時代の相撲興業は京・大阪から始まったそうなんですが、揉め事などのトラブルが多くしばしば禁令が出ていました。

その後禁令が緩み、貞享元年(1684)に江戸幕府より、春と秋の2場所の勧進相撲開催が許されます。で、その場所に選ばれたのがココの境内だったんだそうです。以降約100年間にわたって本場所がここ富岡八幡宮でおこなわれ、その間に定期興行制や番付制も確立されていきました。後に本場所は、本所にある回向院に移っていきますが、その基礎は富岡八幡宮で築かれ、現在の大相撲へと繋がっていくことになったと言われています。

今でも、新横綱誕生時には、相撲協会立会いのもと横綱力士碑への刻名式がおこなわれ、新横綱の土俵入りが奉納されています。また両側には伊藤博文、山県有朋、大隈重信といった賛同者の名も見られます。。。広く各界から協賛を得て建立されたってコトですよね~。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はその「相撲」について、いってみましょう!

まずはその起源から。。。

Sumo is a competitive full-contact sport where a wrestler (rikishi) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyou) or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally. It is generally considered to be a gendai budou (a modern Japanese martial art), though this definition is incorrect as the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, and even today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from the days when sumo was used in the Shinto religion. Life as a rikishi is highly regimented, with rules laid down by the Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal "sumo stables" known in Japanese as heya where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition.

Over the rest of Japanese recorded history, sumo's popularity has changed according to the whims of its rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife. The form of wrestling combat probably changed gradually into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent. The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later.

Also, it is believed that a ring, defined as something other than simply the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, came into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the then principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point wrestlers would wear loose loincloths, rather than the much stiffer mawashi of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed kesho-mawashi during the bout, whereas today these are worn only during pre-tournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period.

Professional sumo (大相撲) can trace its roots back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment. The original wrestlers were probably samurai, often rounin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, and then were held in the Ekou-in in the Edo period. They have been held in the Ryougoku Kokugikan since 1909, though the Kuramae Kokugikan had been used for the tournaments in the post-war years until 1984.

・・・という感じでしょうか。
では続きまして、「相撲と神道との関係について」も少々。

Shinto has historically been used as a means for Japanese nationalism and ethnic identity, especially prior to the end of World War II. It has served to symbolize and provide a sense of belonging, to identify and unify the Japanese people culturally, and to serve as a barrier demarcating the Japanese from other peoples, providing them with a sense of cultural uniqueness. In its association with Shinto, sumo has also been seen as a bulwark of Japanese tradition.

Shinto ritual pervades every aspect of sumo. Before a tournament, two of the gyouji functioning as Shinto priests enact a ritual to consecrate the newly-constructed dohyou, and various Shinto rituals are associated even with the practice dohyou at heya. Both the dohyou-iri, or ring-entering ceremonies performed by the top two divisions before the start of their wrestling day, and in the rituals performed by both combatants immediately before a bout, are derived from Shinto. It retains other Shinto associations as well. The yokozuna's ring-entering ceremony is regarded as a purification ritual in its own right, and is occasionally performed at Shinto shrines for this purpose.

・・・ってなとこですね m(_ _)m

では石碑の裏手に回って、歴代の刻まれた横綱のお名前を拝見しましょうかね^^

tomioka_hachimanguu16.jpg

でもって、次は。。。

tomioka_hachimanguu17.jpg

・・・何か下の方へ行くにつれて、方向がブレていくような(笑)
で、直近はと言うと。。。

tomioka_hachimanguu18.jpg

ん~っ。。。(論外な方が・笑)
まぁ、人生いろいろですから^^

さてココで突然ですがクイズですっ!
土俵の下に埋められているものは、一体何でしょう?

答えは「洗米、するめ、昆布、塩、かやの実、かち栗」の6品で、「鎮めもの」っていうんだそうです。。。

・・・なるほど、昨今の相撲業界の騒動を見る限り、相撲部屋にある土俵の「鎮めもの」は、あんまり機能していないかも(笑)

Copyright ©Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見. Powered by FC2 Blog. Template by eriraha.

FC2Ad

上記広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。新しい記事を書くことで広告を消せます。