Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

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ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

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上記の広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。
新しい記事を書く事で広告が消せます。

さて、お届けしてまいりました「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」。
本日が最終回でございます m(_ _)m

で、やってきたのは「建長寺」
あいかわらず立派なお寺さんデスね~^^

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ワタシは特にココが好きでして。。。朽ちかけた木の色合いが、昔住んでた実家を思い出すんです(^-^)/

建長寺にある建造物は、どれも絵になって、あまりの荘厳さに、前回のブログ記事ではほとんど画像ばかりでした。。。

・・・で、今回ネタ切れ(笑)

そういえば鎌倉にあるお寺って、「禅寺」が多いですよね~。やっぱり「禅」の思想がサムライたちの嗜好に合ったんでしょうかね~。

ではいきなりですが、いつものやつを(←今日は早いねっ!?・笑)
本日は「日本の禅宗」で、いってみましょう!

The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Soutou (曹洞), Rinzai (臨済), and Oubaku (黄檗). Of these, Soutou is the largest and oubaku the smallest. Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation, including Myoshin-ji, Nanzen-ji, Tenryu-ji, Daitoku-ji, and Tofuku-ji.

In the year 1410 a Zen Buddhist monk from Nanzen-ji, a large temple complex in the Japanese capital of Kyoto, wrote out a landscape poem and had a painting done of the scene described by the poem. Then, following the prevailing custom of his day, he gathered responses to the images by asking prominent fellow monks and government officials to inscribe it, thereby creating a shigajiku poem and painting scroll. Such scrolls emerged as a preeminent form of elite Japanese culture in the last two decades of the fourteenth century, a golden age in the phenomenon now known as Japanese Zen culture.

Zen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myouan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known in Japan as Rinzai. Decades later, Nanpo Shoumyou (南浦紹明) (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215, Dougen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dougen established the Soutou school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The oubaku lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus, when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The oubaku school was named for Mount oubaku (黄檗山), which had been Ingen's home in China.

・・・という感じでしょうか。
日本には中国から伝わってきたんですね~^^

では、その「禅」を中国に伝えたのは、誰でしょう?(←いきなりクイズかよっ!)

・・・答えは「達磨(だるま)」さん。
というわけで、その「達磨さん(=Bodhidharma)」についても少々 m(_ _)m

Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th/6th century and is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Zen to China.

Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend, but most accounts agree that he was from the southern region of India, born as a prince to a royal family. Bodhidharma left his kingdom after becoming a Buddhist monk and traveled through Southeast Asia into Southern China and subsequently relocated northwards. The accounts differ on the date of his arrival, with one early account claiming that he arrived during the Liú Sòng Dynasty (420–479) and later accounts dating his arrival to the Liáng Dynasty (502–557). Bodhidharma was primarily active in the lands of the Northern Wèi Dynasty (386–534). Modern scholarship dates him to about the early 5th century.

Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is described as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" 藍眼睛的野人 in Chinese texts.

・・・ですねっと。

さて、お楽しみの「唐門」を見て、おいとましましょうかね(^-^)

・・・え、え、えぇーっ!???

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近づいてみると。。。

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あ、でも確か裏側からも見えるはずっ。。。

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・・・ダメだこりゃ(T-T)どうにもこうにもならないっスね。。。

・・・ん~っ、ダルマさんの話をした矢先にこの状況。。。そう、手も足も出ません(笑)
スポンサーサイト

え~、まだまだ「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」の真っ最中で(笑)
続いてやってきたのは、ご存知「鶴岡八幡宮」。
そうです、このブログ記事の150回記念に訪れた場所デスね~(^0^)/

で、問題なのはあの後、とんでもない事件が起こったコト!

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そう、3月にこの「大銀杏の木」が倒壊してしまったんですよね~(T-T)
でも、ご安心を。。。新しい息吹「ひこばえ(=銀杏の新芽)」が芽生えてきているんです(^-^)b

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子どもたちの声援が、銀杏に力を与えているんでしょうね~。。。

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この「ひこばえ」が大木になるのを見届けることは、きっとできないと思いますが。。。

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でもこの「歴史を守り続けていく」という姿勢は、いつまでも持ち続けていかなければならないと思います。

というわけで、いつになくマジメな場面から、いつものやつを。
本日は「ぎんなんの食用」で、いってみましょう!

The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). In Chinese culture, they are believed to have health benefits; some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities. Japanese cooks add Ginkgo seeds to dishes such as chawanmushi, and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes.

When eaten by children in large quantities (over 5 seeds a day) or over a long period, the raw gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by MPN (4-methoxypyridoxine). Studies have demonstrated that convulsions caused by MPN can be prevented or terminated with pyridoxine.

Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta, the outer fleshy coating. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption, wearing disposable gloves. The symptoms are dermatitis or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy. However, seeds with the fleshy coating removed are perfectly safe to handle.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

俗に「ぎんなんの食べすぎはよくない」と言われます。これは、メチルビリドキシンという中毒物質が含まれており、大人はその解毒酵素を肝臓に持っていますが、幼児はまだ発達していないので危険なんです。目安としては、大人なら10粒程度、子どもさんは3~4粒にしておいたほうがいいみたいです。。。

・・・まあでも、滋養強壮や老化防止に効果があるそうですし、ほどほどなら、イチョウ(胃腸)にもよろしいようで(笑)

「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」・・・続いては「長谷寺」へ。
トレードマークの入口にある提灯の画は、今回は割愛させていただきます m(_ _)m

まずは本堂へ。

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基本的に「美しい」デスよね~(^-^)

で、今回ワタシが食いついたのは。。。

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「千体地蔵」さんたち。。。

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・・・メチャメチャ多いですね(T-T)
んんんっ、更なる視線を感じます。。。お、おぉぉっ!

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年末に見かける「第九の合唱団」みたいっスね~^^
あ、もっともココはお寺ですから、聞こえるのは「声明(しょうみょう)」かぁ。。。

・・・え?。。。声明って何か、ですって?

「声明」っていうのは、日本の伝統音楽の一つでして。。。仏典に節をつけたもので、儀礼に用いられる、いわゆる「宗教音楽」なんです。

そもそも「声明」は、古代インドの学問分野(五明・ごみょう)の一つであり、五明とは、声明(音韻学・文法学)・工巧明(工芸・技術論)・医方明(医学)・因明(倫理学)・内明(自己の宗旨の学問、仏教者の場合は仏教学)の5種類の学問分野を指すそうです。で、「声明」は日本への仏教伝来と共に伝わり定着したと言われています。

754年(天平勝宝4年)に東大寺大仏開眼法要のときに声明を用いた法要が行われた記録があり、奈良時代には、声明が盛んにおこなわれていたようです。

そして、平安時代初期に最澄・空海がそれぞれ声明を伝えて、天台聲明(天台宗はこう表記するそうです)・真言声明の基となりました。 またこの天台宗・真言宗以外の仏教宗派にも、各宗独自の声明があり、現在も継承されているそうなんです。

ちなみにこの「声明」の三音階(初重・二重・三重)が、「三重塔」の各層を意味すると言われています。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの「声明(しょうみょう)」で、いってみましょう!

Shomyo refers to the calling of God's name by the Brahman monks of India, the expression of prayer to God, and the versification and voicing of God's teachings (sutra); in other words, the act of chanting. From India, shomyo was transmitted to China, and along with Buddhism, from China to Japan, where it was adopted as part of esoteric Buddhism. The act of chanting shomyo was introduced as a method of salvation, an ascetic practice to be performed by believers themselves.

In the Tendai sect of Buddhism, during the late Heian Period, Ryonin (1072-1132) standardized and compiled the shomyo texts that had been introduced from China sometime in the middle of the 9th century, and built the original shomyo seminary at Raigoin, a temple in the Ohara region of Kyoto. From this time on, Tendai shomyo was called, Tendai Ohara Shomyo. To the south of Sanzenin, a temple in the heart of Ohara, runs the Ryo River, and to the north of it runs the Ritsu River. The Ryo flows wide in a gentle, curving motion, while the Ritsu's current is made up of a group of bouncing billows. By using these characteristics as a metaphor, shomyo was broken down into two styles: ryokyoku and rikkyoku. Simply put, ryokyoku shomyo might be described as foreboding and difficult to understand, as compared to rikkyoku shomyo, which is relatively easy-to-understand and easy-to-remember. Many of the ryokyoku texts are written in Bongo (Sanskrit transliterated into Japanese), and of those that are written in Kango (Chinese characters), most contain only one short extract from the original sutra. Rikkyoku, on the other hand, is made up of a collection of Kango verses. By repeating these phrases and adding a melody, the sutra began to sound like coherent musical compositions. This coherence gave rise to a form, and the flow of the melody created a tempo. The rikkyoku style is believed to have been the basis for many of the distinguishing features of Japanese music, and was later connected to the creation of Japanese traditional music. Which is to say, rikkyoku is musical and songlike whereas, in ryokyoku, chanting strikes the listener as being a stronger element. When structured, as in rikkyoku or music in general, singing becomes a method of communication between human beings. It is a method similar to speaking, which is structured by grammar. However, chanting is the act of linking oneself, as a human being, to God using the spiritual power of the voice. This is, at least, the ideal on which shomyo as it is found in esoteric Buddhism is based.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

しかし。。。何か足りない気が。。。あぁっ!そうかっ!
お地蔵さんに付き物の「赤い」よだれかけが。。。

・・・ええ、やっぱり「千体(戦隊)」ものには「レッド」がいないと(←ヒーローもののオチで来たねっ・笑)

・・・「京都」だと思った?(笑)
だって。。。♪今日~の今日~の大仏さんは・・・って、別に場所は限定していなかったじゃないっすか~(^0^)b

というわけで、本日より「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」。
このブログでも遂に3回目の登場なんですね~^^

ハイ、こんにちは m(_ _)m

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さすがに3度目ともなると。。。というわけで、アングルを変えて失礼します(笑)

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・・・腹筋運動してるみたいっスね^^
で、さらに角度を変えると。。。

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・・・座椅子に体重かけてのけぞったら、そのままひっくり返った、というお茶の間によくある光景(笑)
「わかっててやったんだもんね~」なんて声が聞こえそうな表情にも見えたりして。。。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの大仏さんにちなんで「阿弥陀如来(=Amitabha)とその教え」で、いってみましょう!

Amitabha is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. Amitabha is the principal buddha in the Pure Land sect, a branch of Buddhism practiced mainly in East Asia, while in Vajrayana Amitabha is known for his longevity attribute and the aggregate of distinguishing and the deep awareness of individualities. According to these scriptures, Amitabha possesses infinite merits resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva named Dharmakara. "Amitabha" is translatable as "Infinite Light," hence Amitabha is often called "The Buddha of Infinite Light."

According to the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life (Mahayana Amitayus Sutra) Amitabha was, in very ancient times and possibly in another system of worlds, a monk named Dharmakara. In some versions of the sutra, Dharmakara is described as a former king who, having come into contact with the Buddhist teachings through the buddha Lokesvararaja, renounced his throne. He then resolved to become a buddha and so to come into possession of a buddhaksetra ("buddha-field", a realm existing in the primordial universe outside of ordinary space time, produced by a buddha's merit) possessed of many perfections. These resolutions were expressed in his forty-eight vows, which set out the type of buddha-field Dharmakara aspired to create, the conditions under which beings might be born into that world, and what kind of beings they would be when reborn there.

In the versions of the sutra widely known in China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, Dharmakara's eighteenth vow was that any being in any universe desiring to be born into Amitabha's Pure Land and calling upon his name even as few as ten times will be guaranteed rebirth there. His nineteenth vow promises that he, together with his bodhisattvas and other blessed Buddhists, will appear before those who call upon him at the moment of death. This openness and acceptance of all kinds of people has made the Pure Land belief one of the major influences in Mahayana Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism seems to have first become popular in northwest India/Pakistan and Afghanistan, from where it spread to Central Asia and China

The sutra goes on to explain that Amitabha, after accumulating great merit over countless lives, finally achieved buddhahood and is still alive in his land of Sukhavati, whose many virtues and joys are described.

The basic doctrines concerning Amitabha and his vows are found in three canonical Mahayana texts:

・The Larger Sukhavativyuha Sutra
・The Smaller Sukhavativyuha Sutra
・The Amitayurdhyana Sutra

Through his efforts, Amitabha created the "Pure Land" called Sukhavati (Sanskrit: "possessing happiness"). Sukhavati is situated in the uttermost west, beyond the bounds of our own world. By the power of his vows, Amitabha has made it possible for all who call upon him to be reborn into this land, there to undergo instruction by him in the dharma and ultimately become bodhisattvas and buddhas in their turn (the ultimate goal of Mahayana Buddhism). From there, these same bodhisattvas and buddhas return to our world to help yet more people.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

ではさらに角度を変えてっと。。。おや?

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お疲れのご様子で、ちょっと「居眠り」してしまったかのような。。。

・・・そう、これを「仏陀たね(うたたね)」と言うとか言わないとか(笑)

さて、意外と引っ張ってしまった「天狗の住処編」もいよいよ佳境に。。。
前回のブログ記事で出くわした「天狗」さんの親分とご対面です^^

・・・の前に。。。一瞬「小便小僧」かと思ったショットで(笑)

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・・・「手水」が、何かイヤです(T-T)

では気を取り直して、先へ。

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あ、ココがどうやら本堂っぽいっすね~。
で。。。ふと周りを見渡すと w(゜0゜)w

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げげっ・・・ゲタが、いっぱいっスね~(@_@)
しかもコッチにはひときわ大きいのがっ!

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で、こちらが「親分さん」ですねっ!。。。どーもこんちは m(_ _)m

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ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はもちろん「下駄」で、いってみましょう!

Geta are a form of traditional Japanese footwear that resemble both clogs and flip-flops. They are a kind of sandal with an elevated wooden base held onto the foot with a fabric thong to keep the foot well above the ground. They are worn with traditional Japanese clothing such as kimono or yukata, but also with Western clothing during the summer months in Japan. Sometimes geta are worn in rain or snow to keep the feet dry, due to their extra height and impermeability compared to other shoes such as zouri.

There are several different styles of geta. The most familiar style in the West consists of an unfinished wooden board called a "dai" (stand) that the foot is set upon, with a cloth "hanao" (thong) that passes between the big toe and second toe. As geta are usually worn only with yukata or other informal Japanese clothes or Western clothes, there is no need to wear socks. Ordinary people wear at least slightly more formal zouri when wearing special toe socks called tabi. Apprentice geisha, also called "maiko", wear their special geta with tabi to accommodate the hanao.

The two supporting pieces below the base board, called "ha" (teeth), are also made of wood, usually very light-weight kiri (paulownia) and make a distinctive "clacking" sound while walking: karankoron. This is sometimes mentioned as one of the sounds that older Japanese miss most in modern life.

The dai may vary in shape: oval ("more feminine") to rectangular ("more masculine") and color (natural, lacquered, or stained). The ha may also vary in style; for example, tengu-geta have only a single centered "tooth". There are also less common geta with three teeth. Merchants used very high geta (two long teeth) to keep the feet well above the seafood scraps on the floor. The teeth are usually not separate, instead, the geta is carved from one block of wood. The tengu tooth is, however, strengthened by a special attachment. The teeth of any geta may have harder wood drilled into the bottom to avoid splitting, and the soles of the teeth may have rubber soles glued onto them.

The hanao can be wide and padded, or narrow and hard, and it can be made with many sorts of fabric. Printed cotton with traditional Japanese motifs is popular, but there are also geta with vinyl and leather hanao. Inside the hanao is a cord that is knotted in a special way to the three holes of the dai. In the wide hanao there is some padding as well. The hanao are replaceable. It sits between the two first toes because having the thong of rectangular geta anywhere but the middle would result in the inner back corners of the geta colliding when walking. Recently, as Western shoes have become more popular, more Western looking geta have been developed. They are more round in shape, may have an ergonomically shaped dai, a thick heel as in Western clogs, instead of separate teeth, and the thong at the side as in flip-flops. According to Japanese superstition, breaking the thong on one's geta is considered very unlucky.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

おりしも、辺りが仄暗くなってまいりました(*_*)
あまり茶化すとお叱りを受けそうで、コワイっす。。。

・・・そんなわけで、ゲタの説明も終えたので、「ゲッタウエイ(Get Away)」しましょうねっと(笑)

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上記広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。新しい記事を書くことで広告を消せます。