Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

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ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

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続く、と言わないで、続ける(笑)。。。最近覚えたテクニックで(←何のじゃ!?)
というわけで、「湯島聖堂」の続きを。

何か上に続いていますね~。

yushima_seidou06.jpg

やっぱり登りたくなるもんですね^^
何があるんでしょ???

yushima_seidou07.jpg

ほほぉーっ、「杏壇門」(きょうだんもん)ですか。。。
ココに来たのは、今日だんもん・・・なんてね(←暖冬なのに寒いっ・笑)

で、その奥に見えるのは「大成殿」ですねっ!

yushima_seidou08.jpg

あれ?普段閉じているのに、今日は開いてるっ w(゜o゜)w
で、中はというと・・・

yushima_seidou09.jpg

何か骨董品的なもの(←価値がよくわかっていない人間の典型的な表現方法っ・笑)が並んでいます~。

で、ココの由来ですが、時の将軍徳川綱吉さんが神田湯島にこの孔子廟を移築することを命じ、この際講堂・学寮が整備され、この地は孔子の生地である「昌平郷」にちなんで「昌平坂」と命名されたんだそうです。

ココは、幕末期には洋学の「開成所」、医学(西洋医学)の「医学所」(←TBSのドラマ「仁」でもお馴染みですねっ)と並び称される規模の教学機関だったそうですが、維新期の混乱に際して一時閉鎖してしまいました。しかし、教育・研究機関としての昌平坂学問所は、幕府天文方の流れを組む開成所、種痘所(←後に「西洋医学所」、そして「医学所」と改名されていきます)と併せて、後の東京大学へと発展していくんです。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は、徳川五代将軍「徳川綱吉」さんで、いってみましょう!

Immediately after becoming shogun, Tsunayoshi gave Hotta Masatoshi the title of Tairo, in a way thanking him for ensuring his succession. Almost immediately after he became shogun, he ordered a vassal of the Takata to commit suicide because of misgovernment, showing his strict approach to the samurai code. He then confiscated his fief of 250,000 koku. During his reign, he would confiscate a total of 1,400,000 koku.

In 1682, Shogun Tsunayoshi ordered his censors and police to raise the living standard of the people. Soon, prostitution was banned, waitresses could not be employed in tea houses, and soon rare and expensive fabrics were banned. Most probably, smuggling began as a practice in Japan soon after Tsunayoshi's authoritarian laws came into effect. In 1684, Tsunayoshi also decreased the power of the tairo after the assassination of Masatoshi by a cousin in that same year.

Nonetheless, due again to maternal advice, Tsunayoshi became very religious, promoting the Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi. In 1682, he read to the daimyo an exposition of the "Great Learning," which would become an annual tradition at the shogun's court. He soon began to lecture even more, and in 1690 lectured about Neo-Confucian work to Shinto and Buddhist daimyo, and even to envoys from the court of Emperor Higashiyama in Kyoto. He also was interested in several Chinese works, namely The Great Learning (Da Xue) and The Classic of Filial Piety (Xiao Jing). Tsunayoshi also loved art and the No drama.

In 1691, Engelbert Kaempfer visited Edo as part of the annual Dutch embassy from Dejima in Nagasaki. He journeyed from Nagasaki to Osaka, to Kyoto, and there to Edo. Kaempfer gives us information on Japan during the early reign of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. As the Dutch embassy entered Edo in 1692, they asked to have an audience with Shogun Tsunayoshi. While they were waiting for approval, a fire destroyed six hundred houses in Edo, and the audience was postponed. Tsunayoshi and several of the ladies of the court sat behind reed screens, while the Dutch embassy sat in front of them. Tsunayoshi took an interest in Western matters, and apparently asked them to talk and sing with one another for him to see how Westerners behaved. Tsunayoshi later put on a No drama for them.

Perhaps owing to mental retardation, or perhaps even religious fundamentalism, Tsunayoshi had an obsession with living things in the later parts of his rule. In the 1690s and 1700s, Tsunayoshi, who was born in the Year of the Dog, thought he should take several measures concerning dogs. A collection of edicts released daily, known as the Edicts on Compassion for Living Things (生類憐みの令) told the populace to protect dogs, since in Edo there were many stray and diseased dogs walking around the city. Therefore, he earned the pejorative title Inu-Kubou (犬公方:Inu=Dog, Kubou=formal title of Shogun).

In 1695, there were so many dogs that Edo began to smell horribly. An apprentice was even executed because he wounded a dog. Finally, the trouble was taken to a distance, as over 50,000 dogs were deported to kennels in the suburbs of the city where they would be housed. They were apparently fed rice and fish which were at the expense of the taxpaying citizens of Edo.

For the latter part of Tsunayoshi's reign, he was advised by Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu. It was a golden era of classic Japanese art, known as the Genroku era.

In 1701, Asano Naganori, the daimyo of Ako han, having been insulted by Kira Yoshinaka in Edo Castle, attempted to kill him. Asano was executed, but Kira went unpunished. Asano's Forty-seven Ronin avenged his death by killing Kira and became a legend that influenced many plays and stories of the era. The most successful of them was a bunraku play called Kanadehon Chushingura (now simply called Chushingura, or "Treasury of Loyal Retainers"), written in 1748 by Takeda Izumo and two associates; it was later adapted into a kabuki play, which is still one of Japan's most popular. The earliest known account of the Ako incident in the West was published in 1822 in Isaac Titsingh's book, Illustrations of Japan.

In 1707, when Mt. Fuji erupted, Shogun Tsunayoshi was already ill, and on February 19, 1709, he died at the age of 62, three days short of his 63rd birthday. He was succeeded by his nephew, Tokugawa Ienobu, who was the son of his other brother, Tokugawa Tsunashige, the former Lord of Kofu, which was a title Ienobu held before becoming shogun.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

病床からとはいえ、綱吉さんは1707年におきた富士山の「宝永大噴火」に出くわしているんですね。。。あれから300年、富士山は噴火していません(怖)

この綱吉さん、ワンちゃんを大切にした「生類憐みの令」でことに有名ですよねっ!
その是非はともあれ、ワタシもワンちゃんが好きなので・・・で、ただありきたりの名前じゃ面白くないから、「ミケ」と名付けて、家族で大事にしたいですね~。。。

・・・と、どうなるか。。。そう、ウチは「犬がミケの一族」(犬神家の一族)と呼ばれます(笑)
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