Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

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ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

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上記の広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。
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え~、引き続き「富岡八幡宮」よりお届けします(←ちょっとニュース調デス・笑)
どんどん先へ進んでいきましょう!

と、見つけたのは。。。

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あ~「深川めし」。。。そうそう、そりゃぁ本場ですよねっ!

深川めしと言えば、そう「アサリ」の甘辛煮を炊き込んで、優しい味で滋味たっぷりの「あっさり」とした。。。

・・・あ、もうダジャレ、やっちゃいました(笑)
何しろ暑いので、早く話を進めたくって。。。違うかっ!

んんんっ???何か書いてありますね~ w(゜0゜)w

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へぇ~っ「日本一の大神輿」なんてあるんですね^^
おぉぉぉーっ!(驚)

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・・・豪華絢爛っ!そして。。。

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こう並ぶと判りやすいんですが。。。微妙にカタチが違うんですね(^0^)b

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はまず「お神輿」から。

A mikoshi is a portable Shinto shrine. Shinto followers believe that it serves as the vehicle of a divine spirit in Japan at the time of a parade of deities. Often, the mikoshi resembles a miniature building, with pillars, walls, a roof, a veranda and a railing. Typical shapes are rectangles, hexagons, and octagons. The body, which stands on two or four poles (for carrying), is usually lavishly decorated, and the roof might hold a carving of a Phoenix.

During a matsuri, or Japanese festival, people bear a mikoshi on their shoulders by means of the two or four poles. They bring the mikoshi from the shrine, carry it around the neighborhoods that worship at the shrine, and in many cases leave it in a designated area, resting on blocks, for a time before returning it to the shrine. Some shrines have the custom of dipping the mikoshi in the water of a nearby lake, river or ocean. At certain festivals, the people who bear the mikoshi wave it wildly from side to side.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

で、初の「お神輿」といえば。。。そう、東大寺の大仏さん建立に際し、そのご加護のために、大分県にある「宇佐八幡宮」から神様をお連れした際の乗り物こそが「神輿」だったんです!

というわけで、その「宇佐八幡宮」についても、やってみましょうねっ!

Usa Shrine is a Shinto shrine in the city of Usa in Oita Prefecture in Japan. Emperor Ojin, who was deified as Hachiman-jin (the tutelary god of warriors), is said to be enshrined in all the sites dedicated to him; and the first and earliest of these was at Usa in the early 8th century. The Usa Shrine has long been the recipient of Imperial patronage; and its prestige is considered second only to that of Ise Shrine.

The shrine was founded in Kyushu during the Nara period. Ancient records place the foundation of Usa Jingu in the Wadou era (708-714). It is today the center from which over 40,000 branch shrines have grown. Usa's Hachiman shrine first appears in the chronicles of Imperial history during the reign of Empress Shoutoku. The empress allegedly had an affair with a Buddhist monk named Doukyou. An oracle was said to have proclaimed that the monk should be made emperor; and the kami Hachiman at Usa Shrine was consulted for verification. The empress died before anything further could develop.

From 1871 through 1946, Usa Shrine was officially designated one of the Kanpei-taisha (官幣大社), meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines. Other similarly honored Hachiman shrines were Iwashimizu Hachiman-gu of Yawata in Kyoto Prefecture and Hakozaki-gu in Fukuoka Prefecture.

The earliest recorded use of a mikoshi was in the 8th century. In 749, the shrine's mikoshi was used to carry the spirit of Hachiman from Kyushu to Nara, where the deity was to guard construction of the great Daibutsu at Todai-ji.

・・・という感じですね m(_ _)m

ところでお神輿を担ぐときの掛け声「ワッショイ!」の語源って、何だかご存知ですか?

コレ、諸説あるそうですが、「和を背負う(わをしょう)」から来ていると言われています。
おりしも某政党の代表戦まっ盛りですが・・・和を背負う、というよりすっかり「和を乱してる」感じがしてなりません。。。

・・・まぁ、我々国民はいずれにしても「かつがれない(=騙されない)」ようにしないとね!(-_-#)

まだ深川エリアを散策中で。。。それにしても「おみくじ」には参りました(笑)
お口直しに(←やや失礼だねっ!)、由緒正しいお宮さんにおじゃましましょう!

で、やってきたのは「富岡八幡宮」。

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当たり前ですが、上品デス(笑)

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お店の構えも、どことなく味があって。。。いいですね~^^

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鳥居とその先に見える本堂も、落ち着いていて、風情があります(嬉)
あ、そういえばココには、あの方がいらっしゃいましたねっ!

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そう、ここには「伊能忠敬」さんがいらっしゃるんです。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。。。あ、でも伊能忠敬さんについては、以前に触れてしまっていました(T-T)
では、仕方ありません。。。もっとツッコんだ話で、「日本地図」について。

まずは「古代の地図」から。

The oldest known map in Japan is a topographical drawing discovered on a stone wall inside a tomb in the city of Kurayoshi, in Tottori Prefecture, dated to the 6th century AD. Depicting a landscape of houses, bridges, and roads, it is thought to have been made not for practical navigational purposes, but rather as a kind of celestial cartography given to the dead to maintain a connection with the world of the living and allow them to orient themselves when moving on to the other world. Similar maps have been found in other kofun burial tombs as well. There is also evidence that at least rudimentary surveying tools were already in use in this era. One of the oldest written references to maps in a Japanese source is found in the Kojiki, the oldest history of Japan, in which land records are mentioned. The other major ancient history, the Nihon Shoki of 720 AD, describes a map of the ancient city of Naniwa (modern Osaka. The first map of provincial surveys is thought to be in 738, as described in the Shoku Nihongi. The earliest extant maps in Japan date to the 8th century, and depict the ownership of square rice field plots, oriented to the four cardinal directions. Shinto shrines held maps that they used for agrarian reform, differentiation of property, and land holdings. The system by which these maps were measured was called jouri, measured in units called tan and tsubo.

で、続いては「田図(でんず)」。

The Imperial Court of the Emperor Koutoku (孝徳天皇) put the Handen sei (班田制) into execution in 646 (大化2年) and asked each province to submit maps of their land holdings, known as denzu. This was considered the first attempt in Japan to draw accurate landscape in picture maps.

さらに「行基図(ぎょうきず)」へと進化します。

During the Emperor Shoumu's reign (聖武天皇), maps known as Gyouki-zu (行基図), named for the high priest Gyouki, were developed. Gyouki himself served as a civil engineer, although there are no explicitly known direct connections between himself and maps. The connection between his name and the term Gyouki-zu is thought to be derived from his authority as a priest and perceived connections between maps and geomantic rites to drive away evil spirits. The term Gyouki-zu was widespread and used for maps which illustrated the routes from the Imperial capital to each province in Japan. These maps covered a broader area, and include a much larger portion of what is now known as Japan, giving an idea of the extent of known territory at the time. Maps from these early surveys, show the northeasternly extent of Japan to be near the island of Sado, the westernly extent as Kyushu and the southernly extent as the tip of Shikoku, indicating a relative relationship of orientation, but lack of knowledge of the true cardinal directions, as Kyushu stretches much further south than Shikoku, and Sado is closer to north than northeast. More important was relative position, especially in terms of the relationship between the capital in Yamashiro Province (Nara Prefecture), and as long as the maps accurately depicted this relationship, they were considered useful. The style and orientation of the Gyouki-zu is much in line with the general overview of Japanese maps as described above, and it was this style that formed the dominant framework in Japanese cartography until the late medieval and Edo periods.

これが戦国時代を経て、江戸時代初期になると。。。

During the latter half of the 16th century and beyond, traditional Japanese mapmaking became influenced by Western techniques for the first time with the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese knowledge through the trade port of Nagasaki. The theory of the Earth as a sphere is thought to have arrived with Francis Xavier in approximately 1550, and Oda Nobunaga is believed to have possessed one of the first globes to have arrived in Japan. Japan thus saw full world maps for the first time, changing notions of a Buddhist cosmology matched with physical geography. The first known printed European-style map was made in Nagasaki in 1645, however, the name of the map's creator is unknown. World maps were made in Japan, but they were often gilded and used for largely decorative, as opposed to navigational, purposes and often placed Japan at the center of the world. Marine charts, used for navigation, made in Japan in the 1600s were quite accurate in depictions of East and Southeast Asia, but became distorted in other parts of the map. Development also continued in traditional styles such as the Gyouki-zu, the improved and more accurate versions of which are known as Joutoku type maps. In these Joutoku maps, coastline was more defined, and the maps were generally more accurate by modern standards. The name "Joutoku" is derived from the name of a temple in Echizen Province (Fukui Prefecture), after a map drawn by Kano Eitoku.

そして、「国絵図(くにえず)」としてまずは完成をみます。。。

The first attempts to create a map encompassing all of Japan were undertaken by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1591, late in the Sengoku period. However, it was not until the Edo period that a project of that nature would come to full fruition under the auspices of the Tokugawa government. Kuni-ezu were maps of each province within Japan that the Edo government ordered created in the years of 1644 (正保元年), 1696 (元禄9年), and 1835 (天保6年). Each of the three kuni-ezu was called Shouhou kuni-ezu, Genroku kuni-ezu, and Tenpo kuni-ezu. The purpose of kuni-ezu was to clearly specify not only the transformation of boundaries of provinces, roads, mountains, and rivers but also the increase in kokudaka (石高) following the development of new field. Maps of each country were drawn in a single paper, with the exception Mutsu Province (陸奥国), Dewa Province (出羽国), Echigo Province (越後国), and Ryuukyuu Province (琉球国) where a several pieces of paper were given. The Genroku kuni-ezu depicted the territorial extent of Japan as reaching from southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the north to the Ryuukyuu and Yonaguni Islands in the south. A major flaw in these maps, however was the unreliability of surveying techniques, which often involved lengths of rope that easily became distorted, resulting in distortions in the map based on the survey as well. This was largely seen as an unavoidable flaw however. In 1719, the Edo government created a map covering all of Japan based on the Genroku kuni-ezu and completed as Nihon ezu (日本絵図). Maps of roads, sea routes, towns, and castles all become more accurate and detaield on a smaller scale at around this time.

そして、いよいよ伊能忠敬さんの「伊能図(いのうず)」になります m(_ _)m

Ino Tadataka started learning Western astronomy when he was 52 years old. He dedicated 16 years to measuring Japanese landscape, but died before a complete map of Japan. The map, called Ino-zu, was completed in 1821 (文政4年) under the leadership of Takahashi Kageyasu (高橋景保). In 1863, the Hydrographic Department of British Royal Navy published the map of the Shelf Sea around the Japanese islands based on the Ino-zu and the accurate geographic location of Japan became widely known. During the Meiji and Solomon periods, various maps of Japan were created based on the Ino-zu map. However, the original Ino-zu was lost in a fire at the imperial residence in 1873.

・・・と、こんな感じでしょうか。

ひと仕事終えたところで、ではご本人と対面。。。あ、こんにちは。
せっかくなんで、写真撮らせていただいて、よろしいでしょうか?。。。

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・・・ハイ、チーズ(地図)(←ヒネれよっ!・笑)

え~、ふたたび「江戸」に戻ってまいりました m(_ _)m
さて本日はドコ行きましょうかね^^

で、やってきたのは「深川不動尊」。

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・・・なるほど、ココは「成田山」の管轄なんですね~。
さぞかし由緒在るモノがいっぱいあるんでしょうね。。。

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イヤイヤ、またこりゃぁ「渋い」参道で(嬉)
あ、本堂らしきものが見えてきました~。

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では、おじゃまします。。。

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おぉぉっ、ドラゴンの手水舎ですね。。。カッコイイっす!
前回のブログ記事に出てきた「小便小僧と見間違うような」モノとは大違いで(笑)

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あ、コレが不動明王さんのお履きになる「わらじ」ですね(一_一☆)
ではあらためて、参拝をば。。。え、えぇぇーっ!?

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・・・新本堂建立って。。。「東照宮かよっ!」(←わかる方だけ笑ってください)

ちなみに過去のブログ記事で、家康クンゆかりの地を何箇所か訪ねているんですが、ことあるごとに、どこかしらが改装中という運の悪さで(笑)

それにしても、「改装」ならともかく、「建立」だと、そうとうお金もかかるんでしょうね~。。。

・・・ガンッ。。。あ、あ痛たたっ。。。何かにぶつかりましたね???
え、え、え!?

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・・・いくらお金集めなきゃいけないからって。。。商売しすぎでしょっ!(笑)

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は「おみくじ」で、いってみましょう!

Omikuji are random fortunes written on strips of paper at Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in Japan. Literally "sacred lottery" or "written oracle", these are usually received by making a small offering and randomly choosing one from a box, hoping for the resulting fortune to be good.

The omikuji is scrolled up or folded, and unrolling the piece of paper reveals the fortune written on it. It includes a general blessing which can be any one of the following:

大吉 - Great blessing
中吉 - Middle blessing
小吉 - Small blessing
吉 - Blessing
半吉 - Half-blessing
末吉 - Near-blessing
末小吉 - Near-small-blessing
凶 - Curse
小凶 - Small curse
半凶 - Half-curse
末凶 - Near-curse
大凶 - Great curse

It then lists fortunes regarding specific aspects of one's life, which may include any number of the following among other possible combinations:

方角 - auspicious/inauspicious directions
願事 – one's wish or desire
待人 – a person being waited for
失せ物 – lost article(s)
旅立ち – travel
商い – business dealings
學問 – studies or learning
相場 – market speculation
爭事 – disputes
戀愛 – romantic relationships
転居 – moving or changing residence
出産 – childbirth or pregnancy
病気 – illness
縁談 – marriage proposal or engagement

The omikuji predicts the person's chances of his or her hopes coming true, of finding a good match, or generally matters of health, fortune, life, etc. When the prediction is bad, it is a custom to fold up the strip of paper and attach it to a pine tree or a wall of metal wires alongside other bad fortunes in the temple or shrine grounds. A purported reason for this custom is a pun on the word for pine tree (松) and the verb 'to wait' (待つ), the idea being that the bad luck will wait by the tree rather than attach itself to the bearer. In the event of the fortune being good, the bearer has the option of tying it for the fortune to have a greater effect or can keep it for luck.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

イヤしかし、参りましたね~。これだけおみくじがいっぱいあると、どれを信じたらいいのか。。。

・・・そう、不動さんだけに、みょ~ぉな(明王な)気分です(笑)

・・・というわけで、まだ建設中のココに、来ちゃいました(笑)

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まだ降りることはできませんが、ココがモノレールの「国際線ターミナル駅」になるんですね~(^0^)/

あ、建物の外観が見えてきました^^

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・・・かなり大きいんですね~ w(゜0゜)w

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もうちょっと中を覗いてみましょうかねっ!

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駐車場のようですが。。。で、その奥には。。。

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あはぁ~っ、出国ターミナルらしきものがありますっ!(嬉)

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は航空会社を代表して、何かと話題の「JAL」さんの歴史でいってみましょう!

Japan Air Lines Co., Ltd. was established on August 1, 1951, with the Government of Japan recognizing the need for a reliable air transportation system to help Japan grow in the aftermath of the World War II. The airline was founded with an initial capital of \100 million; and its headquarters located in Ginza, Tokyo. Between August 27 and August 29, the airline operated invitational flights on a Douglas DC-3 Kinsei, leased from Philippine Airlines. On October 25, Japan's first post-war domestic airline service was inaugurated, using a Martin 2-0-2 aircraft, named Mokusei, and crew leased from Northwest Airlines. On August 1, 1953, the Diet of Japan passed the Japan Air Lines Company Act, forming a new state-owned Japan Air Lines on October 1, which assumed all assets and liabilities of its private predecessor. On February 2, 1954, the airline began its first international service, carrying 18 passengers from Tokyo to San Francisco. The flight was operated by a Douglas DC-6B named City of Tokyo, made stops at Wake Island and Honolulu before arriving in San Francisco. To this day, the flights between Tokyo and San Francisco are still designated as Japan Airlines Flight 1 and 2, to commemorate its first international service. The airline, in addition to the Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-6B and Martin 2-0-2s, operated Douglas DC-4 and Douglas DC-7C during the 1950s.

In 1960, the airline received its first jet, a Douglas DC-8, and entered service to Seattle and Hong Kong. Soon after, it decided to re-equip the fleet, exclusively using jet aircraft. During the 1960s, many new international destinations were established, including London, Moscow, New York, Paris and Pusan. By 1965, Japan Air Lines was headquartered in the Tokyo Building in Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo. In 1972, under the 45/47 system, the so-called "aviation constitution" enacted by the Japanese government, JAL was granted flag carrier status to operate international routes. The airline was also designated to operate domestic trunk routes in competition with All Nippon Airways and Toa Domestic Airlines. The signing of Civil Air Transport Agreement between the People's Republic of China and Japan on April 20, 1974, caused the suspension of air route between the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Japan on April 21. A new subsidiary, Japan Asia Airways, was established on August 8, 1975, and air services between the two countries were restored on September 15. During the 1970s, the airline bought the Boeing 727, Boeing 747, Convair 880 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 to accommodate its growing routes within Japan and to other countries.

In the 1980s, the airline performed special flights for the Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko of Japan, Pope John Paul II and for Japanese prime ministers, until the introduction of the dedicated government aircraft using two Boeing 747-400, operated as Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two. During that decade the airline introduced new Boeing 747-100SR, Boeing 747-SUD and Boeing 767 jets to the fleet, and retired the Boeing 727s and Douglas DC-8s.

By 1965, over half of the JAL's revenue was being generated by transpacific routes to the United States, and the airline was further lobbying the United States for fifth freedom rights to fly transatlantic routes from the East Coast. In 1978 and 1984, JAL started flights to Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, respectively, via Anchorage and San Juan; the stopover was changed to Los Angeles in the 1980s-1990s, and then to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1999. Through 2009, the airline operates fifth freedom flights between New York and Sao Paulo; and between Vancouver and Mexico City.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

これからココに、たくさんの外国からのお客様がいらっしゃるんでしょうね~。
せっかくなんで、楽しい雰囲気でお出迎えしましょう!

・・・そうそう、「アテンション&ハイテンション・プリーズ!」で(笑)


羽田空港をブラブラしているうちに、ワタシも海外に出かけたくなっちゃいました~!
というわけで、行き先はヒ・ミ・ツ。。。で、またお盆明けにブログ更新しますので m(_ _)m

というわけで、いざ「羽田空港」へ。。。
ココ「天王洲アイル」からだと、当然モノレールで移動デス。

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でもって、すぐに到着。
まずはせっかくなので、大好きな飛行機をば(^-^)b

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・・・JALさんに。。。

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・・・ANAさんに。。。

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あはぁ~っ、Air Doさんもですね~^^

・・・え?羽田に来た理由?
そりゃぁ、コレですよっ!(一_一☆)

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「新国際線ターミナル」完成!

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そうなんです。。。海外からのお客様は10月21日から、この「羽田空港」着もより増えてくるんですよね~。
飛行機の便名と到着時刻だけでなく、到着が「成田」か「羽田」かも気にしないといけなくなるんじゃないですか~?

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はココ「羽田空港」で、いってみましょう!

Haneda Airport is one of the two primary airports serving the Greater Tokyo Area. Its official name is Tokyo International Airport.

Although Haneda was originally the primary airport for the Tokyo region, it now shares that role with Narita International Airport. Haneda handles almost all domestic flights to and from Tokyo while Narita handles almost all international flights. In recent years, however, international service from Haneda has expanded significantly with the addition of "scheduled charter" flights to Seoul, Shanghai and Hong Kong. The Japanese government plans to expand Haneda's international role in the future with more regional flights and off-peak charter services.

Haneda handled 62,100,754 passengers in 2009. By passenger throughput, it was the second busiest airport in Asia and the fifth busiest in the world, after Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson Airport, London Heathrow, Beijing's International Airport and Chicago's O'Hare International Airport. It is the primary base of Japan's two major domestic airlines, Japan Airlines (Terminal 1) and All Nippon Airways (Terminal 2), as well as low-cost carriers Hokkaido International Airlines, Skymark Airlines, Skynet Asia Airways, and StarFlyer. Haneda is expected to be able to handle 90 million passengers after its expansion in 2010.

A third terminal for international flights is planned for completion in October 2010. The cost to construct the five-story terminal building and attached 2,300-car parking deck will be covered by a Private Finance Initiative process, revenues from duty-free concessions and a facility use charge of \2,000 per passenger. Both the Tokyo Monorail and the Keikyu Airport Line will be routed to stop at the new terminal, and an international air cargo facility will also be constructed nearby.

The fourth runway, which is called D Runway has been completed. This runway is expected to increase Haneda's operational capacity from 285,000 movements to 407,000 movements per year, permitting increased frequencies on existing routes, as well as routes to new destinations.

In particular, Haneda will offer additional slots to handle 60,000 overseas flights a year (30,000 during the day and 30,000 during late night and early morning hours). The Ministry of Transport originally planned to allocate a number of the newly available landing slots to international flights of 1,947 km (1,210 mi) or less (the distance to Ishigaki, the longest domestic flight operating from Haneda). The destinations within this range include all of Korea, parts of eastern and northern China (including Shanghai, Qingdao, Dalian, Harbin,and Beijing) and parts of the Russian Far East (including Vladivostok and Sakhalin).

・・・という感じでしょうか。
というわけで、くれぐれもお出迎え空港は、お間違えのないように m(_ _)m

・・・ええ、フライト(Flight)を間違えると、恐ろしいこと(Fright)になりますよ~(笑)

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上記広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。新しい記事を書くことで広告を消せます。