Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

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ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

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新しい記事を書く事で広告が消せます。

さて、イレギュラーな展開でお送りいたしました「けっこうじゃなかった日光編」。
本日が最終回でございます。。。

え?ネタがなくなったのかって?。。。いえいえ、「時間」がなくなったんです(T-T)

それにしても「唐門」その他の補修作業によっぽどお金がかかるみたいで。。。

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こんなのとか。。。

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・・・「深川不動」かっ!(←以前のブログ記事を参照ください・笑)

仕方ないっスね~。。。では「鳴竜」でも見にいきますかね(^-^)/

ええーっ!?

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ド、ドアが閉まり始めてます~(T-T)

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そして間もなく。。。

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・・・なんてこったい!。。。あ、「大猷院」ももしかして!w(゜0゜)w

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ドン!ドン!・・・開けてくれーいっ!(T-T)

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こうなったら、あと2ヶ所の目的地、「中禅寺湖」と「華厳の滝」へ急ぐしかないっ!(←刑事ドラマかっ・笑)
急いで「いろは坂」を登らねばっ!

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの坂の名前にも使われている「いろは」で、いってみましょう!

The Iroha is a Japanese poem, probably written in the Heian era (AD 794–1179). Originally the poem was attributed to the founder of the Shingon Esoteric sect of Buddhism in Japan, Kūkai, but more modern research has found the date of composition to be later in the Heian Period. The first record of its existence dates from 1079. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary.

The first appearance of the Iroha, in Konkoumyousaishououkyou Ongi (金光明最勝王経音義), was in seven lines: six with seven morae each, and one with five. It was also written in man'you-gana.

以呂波耳本へ止
千利奴流乎和加
餘多連曽津祢那
良牟有為能於久
耶万計不己衣天
阿佐伎喩女美之
恵比毛勢須

Structurally, however, the poem follows the standard 7-5 pattern of Japanese poetry (with one hypometric line), and in modern times it is generally written that way, in contexts where line breaks are used.

Authorship is traditionally ascribed to the Heian era Japanese Buddhist priest and scholar Kuukai. It is said that the iroha is a transformation of these verses in the Nirvana Sutra:

諸行無常
是生滅法
生滅滅已
寂滅為楽

which translates into

All acts are impermanent
That's the law of creation and destruction.
When all creation and destruction are extinguished
That ultimate stillness (nirvana) is true bliss.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

やっと中禅寺湖に到着しましたが。。。

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これじゃ、「華厳の滝」は「聴きに行く」ことになっちゃいますね。。。(T-T)

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・・・そう、せっかくの名所が見れなくて、暗い(Cry)!(T-T)

のっけから出鼻をくじかれっぱなしで(T-T)
先が思いやられます。。。

まあでも、気を取り直してまいりましょう(^0^)/
いざ中へと。

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やはり「行楽シーズン」だからでしょうか。。。観光客がものすごく多いです~。

それにしても、この陽明門の彫刻は、ホント圧巻ですよねっ!

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おかげさまでやっとテンションが上がってきました^^
さて待望の「唐門」はと。。。え?え?えーっ!

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前回から7ヶ月も経っているのに・・・まだコレなんですか~(T-T)

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仕方ないので、ちょっと中を覗いてと。。。

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・・・せめてバケツは、どけといてくれませんかね~。

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で、あらためて全体を見渡すと。。。

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・・・(T-T)(T-T)(T-T)(T-T)(T-T)(T-T)(T-T)

仕方ないっス。。。大丈夫そうな「眠り猫」さんでも見て帰りましょう^^

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さらに、裏側はこうなってるんですね~(一_一☆)

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よかった(^-^)満喫できました~。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は「左甚五郎さんと眠り猫」で、いってみましょう!

The Japanese sleeping cat is modeled after the famous crouching nemurineko carving by Hidari Jingorou. "Hidari" means "left" and "east", and refers to Hidari being "left-handed". Jingorou is known to have created many famous sculptures at temples, and shrines throughout Japan.

Hidari Jingorou loved cats and was fascinated by cats. Jingorou spent eight months in seclusion to refine his knowledge and technique in wood sculpturing. He spent the majority of his time studying, sculpturing, and carving wooden cats that appeared lifelike in various shapes.

It was Jingorou's goal to carve and sculpture lifelike cats by making "utmost efforts in the future to create a new style in the field of sculpturing".

Jingorou was an apprentice for the Chief Architect Hokyo Yoheiji Yusa of the Imperial Court in Kyoto where he studied how to build temples, shrines, and sculptures.

Through Jingorou's insight and new technique, animal sculpturing would take a new direction in Japan, a realistic appearance of an animal due to fine detailed sculpturing by the artist. Jingorō's approach in detailed wood sculpturing would later have an effect in other areas of Japanese art, namely, ceramic animals.

This creative attention to detailing sculptured cats can be seen throughout the history of Japan, and more applicably in the ceramic arts. It is the fine detailed realistic life like cats that fascinates cat collectors, and makes these special type of cats highly desirable and collectible.

The nemuri neko is so highly acclaimed and marvelled in Japan - it is a National Treasure, and inspiration to Japan artists and artists around the world for centuries.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

しかしまぁ。。。人がホント多いデスね~。
こんだけ騒がしいと、「眠り猫」どころか「不眠症猫」になりそうですね~^^

でもこの彫刻は眠ってるから可愛いのであって、猫の目がギラギラと血走っていたら。。。

・・・そう、多分びっくりしちゃいます。。。きゃっと(笑)

え~、さて本日より「けっこうな日光編」・・・といきたかったのですが。。。
結果が結果だったので、「けっこうじゃなかった日光編」に変更させて頂きました(T-T)

え?何故かって。。。

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・・・この渋滞で(T-T)。。。思わず車酔いが~~

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違うか(笑)

何しろ東京を出たのが朝9時だったんですが。。。日光に着いた時点で午後2時(>_<)

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まあ、まずは「神橋」からっと。

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・・・渡れない(T-T)

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仕方ありません。。。ではいざ東照宮へ(^-^)/
まずは「輪王寺」から、おじゃますることにしましょう!

え。。。え?えぇぇーっ!?

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・・・外観補修工事中!?(T-T)

いいです、もうある意味「慣れてます」ので。。。
ココには「五重塔」もあるじゃないですか~。

え。。。?

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今回の日光編、やはりイヤな始まり方デス(T-T)

ところで、この「日光」という地名、誰が名付けたんでしょうか?

答えは、「空海」さん。
「二荒山」と「二荒神(=宇都宮二荒山神社)」の「二荒(ふたあら)」を「にこう」と読み、「日光」と当て字したという俗説なんですね~ w(゜0゜)w

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はその「空海」さんと、同じく唐に渡り修行した「最澄」さんで、いってみましょう!

In 804 Kuukai took part in a government-sponsored expedition to China in order to learn more about the Mahavairocana Sutra. Scholars are unsure why Kuukai was selected to take part in an official mission to China, given his background as a private, not state-sponsored, monk. Theories include family connections within the Saeki-Ootomo clan, or connections through fellow clergy or a member of the Fujiwara clan.

The expedition included four ships, with Kuukai on the first ship, while another famous monk, Saichou was on the second ship. During a storm, the third ship turned back, while the fourth ship was lost at sea. Kuukai's ship arrived weeks later in the province of Fujian and its passengers were initially denied entry to the port while the ship was impounded. Kuukai, being fluent in Chinese, wrote a letter to the governor of the province explaining their situation. The governor allowed the ship to dock, and the party was asked to proceed to the capital of Chang'an (present day Xi'an), the seat of power of the Tang Dynasty.

After further delays, the Tang court granted Kuukai a place in the Ximingsi temple where his study of Chinese Buddhism began in earnest as well as studies of Sanskrit with the Gandharan pandit Prajna who had been educated at the Indian Buddhist university at Nalanda.

It was in 805 that Kuukai finally met Master Huiguo, the man who would initiate him into the esoteric Buddhism tradition at Changan's Qinglong Monastery (青龍寺). Huiguo came from an illustrious lineage of Buddhist masters, famed especially for translating Sanskrit texts into Chinese, including the Mahavairocana Sutra.

Huiguo immediately bestowed upon Kuukai the first level Abhisheka or esoteric initiation. Whereas Kuukai had expected to spend 20 years studying in China, in a few short months he was to receive the final initiation, and become a master of the esoteric lineage. Huiguo was said to have described teaching Kuukai as like "pouring water from one vase into another". Huiguo died shortly afterwards, but not before instructing Kuukai to return to Japan and spread the esoteric teachings there, assuring him that other disciples would carry on his work in China.

Kuukai arrived back in Japan in 806 as the eighth Patriarch of Esoteric Buddhism, having learnt Sanskrit and its Siddham script, studied Indian Buddhism, as well as having studied the arts of Chinese calligraphy and poetry, all with recognized masters. He also arrived with a large number of texts, many of which were new to Japan and were esoteric in character, as well as several texts on the Sanskrit language and the Siddham script.

However in Kuukai's absence Emperor Kammu had died and was replaced by Emperor Heizei who exhibited no great enthusiasm for Buddhism. Kukai's return from China was eclipsed by Saichou, the founder of the Tendai school, who found favor with the court during this time. Saichou had already had esoteric rites officially recognised by the court as an integral part of Tendai, and had already performed the abhisheka, or initiatory ritual, for the court by the time Kuukai returned to Japan. Later, with Emperor Kammu's death, Saichou's fortunes began to wane.

Saichou requested, in 812, that Kuukai give him the introductory initiation, which Kuukai agreed to do. He also granted a second-level initiation upon Saichou, but refused to bestow the final initiation (which would have qualified Saichou as a master of esoteric Buddhism) because Saichou had not completed the required studies, leading to a falling out between the two that was not resolved.

Little is known about Kuukai's movements until 809 when the court finally responded to Kuukai's report on his studies, which also contained an inventory of the texts and other objects he had brought with him, and a petition for state support to establish the new esoteric Buddhism in Japan. That document, the Catalogue of Imported Items, is the first attempt by Kuukai to distinguish the new form of Buddhism from that already practiced in Japan. The court's response was an order to reside in the Takaosan (later Jingo-ji) Temple in the suburbs of Kyoto. This was to be Kuukai's headquarters for the next 14 years. The year 809 also saw the retirement of Heizei due to illness and the succession of the Emperor Saga, who supported Kuukai and exchanged poems and other gifts.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

しかしまぁ。。。長旅の疲れと空腹が、ダブルでやってきまして。。。

・・・そう、最長(最澄)渋滞で、お昼ぬき。。。メシでも、食うかい(空海)?(笑)

さて、お届けしてまいりました「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」。
本日が最終回でございます m(_ _)m

で、やってきたのは「建長寺」
あいかわらず立派なお寺さんデスね~^^

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ワタシは特にココが好きでして。。。朽ちかけた木の色合いが、昔住んでた実家を思い出すんです(^-^)/

建長寺にある建造物は、どれも絵になって、あまりの荘厳さに、前回のブログ記事ではほとんど画像ばかりでした。。。

・・・で、今回ネタ切れ(笑)

そういえば鎌倉にあるお寺って、「禅寺」が多いですよね~。やっぱり「禅」の思想がサムライたちの嗜好に合ったんでしょうかね~。

ではいきなりですが、いつものやつを(←今日は早いねっ!?・笑)
本日は「日本の禅宗」で、いってみましょう!

The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Soutou (曹洞), Rinzai (臨済), and Oubaku (黄檗). Of these, Soutou is the largest and oubaku the smallest. Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation, including Myoshin-ji, Nanzen-ji, Tenryu-ji, Daitoku-ji, and Tofuku-ji.

In the year 1410 a Zen Buddhist monk from Nanzen-ji, a large temple complex in the Japanese capital of Kyoto, wrote out a landscape poem and had a painting done of the scene described by the poem. Then, following the prevailing custom of his day, he gathered responses to the images by asking prominent fellow monks and government officials to inscribe it, thereby creating a shigajiku poem and painting scroll. Such scrolls emerged as a preeminent form of elite Japanese culture in the last two decades of the fourteenth century, a golden age in the phenomenon now known as Japanese Zen culture.

Zen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myouan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known in Japan as Rinzai. Decades later, Nanpo Shoumyou (南浦紹明) (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215, Dougen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dougen established the Soutou school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The oubaku lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus, when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The oubaku school was named for Mount oubaku (黄檗山), which had been Ingen's home in China.

・・・という感じでしょうか。
日本には中国から伝わってきたんですね~^^

では、その「禅」を中国に伝えたのは、誰でしょう?(←いきなりクイズかよっ!)

・・・答えは「達磨(だるま)」さん。
というわけで、その「達磨さん(=Bodhidharma)」についても少々 m(_ _)m

Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th/6th century and is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Zen to China.

Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend, but most accounts agree that he was from the southern region of India, born as a prince to a royal family. Bodhidharma left his kingdom after becoming a Buddhist monk and traveled through Southeast Asia into Southern China and subsequently relocated northwards. The accounts differ on the date of his arrival, with one early account claiming that he arrived during the Liú Sòng Dynasty (420–479) and later accounts dating his arrival to the Liáng Dynasty (502–557). Bodhidharma was primarily active in the lands of the Northern Wèi Dynasty (386–534). Modern scholarship dates him to about the early 5th century.

Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is described as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" 藍眼睛的野人 in Chinese texts.

・・・ですねっと。

さて、お楽しみの「唐門」を見て、おいとましましょうかね(^-^)

・・・え、え、えぇーっ!???

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近づいてみると。。。

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あ、でも確か裏側からも見えるはずっ。。。

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・・・ダメだこりゃ(T-T)どうにもこうにもならないっスね。。。

・・・ん~っ、ダルマさんの話をした矢先にこの状況。。。そう、手も足も出ません(笑)

え~、まだまだ「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」の真っ最中で(笑)
続いてやってきたのは、ご存知「鶴岡八幡宮」。
そうです、このブログ記事の150回記念に訪れた場所デスね~(^0^)/

で、問題なのはあの後、とんでもない事件が起こったコト!

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そう、3月にこの「大銀杏の木」が倒壊してしまったんですよね~(T-T)
でも、ご安心を。。。新しい息吹「ひこばえ(=銀杏の新芽)」が芽生えてきているんです(^-^)b

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子どもたちの声援が、銀杏に力を与えているんでしょうね~。。。

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この「ひこばえ」が大木になるのを見届けることは、きっとできないと思いますが。。。

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でもこの「歴史を守り続けていく」という姿勢は、いつまでも持ち続けていかなければならないと思います。

というわけで、いつになくマジメな場面から、いつものやつを。
本日は「ぎんなんの食用」で、いってみましょう!

The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). In Chinese culture, they are believed to have health benefits; some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities. Japanese cooks add Ginkgo seeds to dishes such as chawanmushi, and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes.

When eaten by children in large quantities (over 5 seeds a day) or over a long period, the raw gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by MPN (4-methoxypyridoxine). Studies have demonstrated that convulsions caused by MPN can be prevented or terminated with pyridoxine.

Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta, the outer fleshy coating. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption, wearing disposable gloves. The symptoms are dermatitis or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy. However, seeds with the fleshy coating removed are perfectly safe to handle.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

俗に「ぎんなんの食べすぎはよくない」と言われます。これは、メチルビリドキシンという中毒物質が含まれており、大人はその解毒酵素を肝臓に持っていますが、幼児はまだ発達していないので危険なんです。目安としては、大人なら10粒程度、子どもさんは3~4粒にしておいたほうがいいみたいです。。。

・・・まあでも、滋養強壮や老化防止に効果があるそうですし、ほどほどなら、イチョウ(胃腸)にもよろしいようで(笑)

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