Yokoso! Japan - 通訳ガイド的日本再発見

海外から日本に来る外国人観光客の方々に、通訳ガイドの視点から、日本の良さを伝えたい…日頃見慣れた風景もあらためて見れば新鮮に映る、そんな視点で日本を再発見し、通訳ガイドの方もすぐ活用できるように、英語で紹介します。

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ホイサムジャイ

Author:ホイサムジャイ
放浪癖あり(笑)。好きなTV番組は「モヤモヤさまぁ~ず」「ちい散歩」「タモリ倶楽部」「ぶらり途中下車の旅」などなど。。。良く言えば「自由人」、悪く言えば「鉄砲玉」(←出たら戻って来んのかい!)

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「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」・・・続いては「長谷寺」へ。
トレードマークの入口にある提灯の画は、今回は割愛させていただきます m(_ _)m

まずは本堂へ。

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基本的に「美しい」デスよね~(^-^)

で、今回ワタシが食いついたのは。。。

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「千体地蔵」さんたち。。。

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・・・メチャメチャ多いですね(T-T)
んんんっ、更なる視線を感じます。。。お、おぉぉっ!

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年末に見かける「第九の合唱団」みたいっスね~^^
あ、もっともココはお寺ですから、聞こえるのは「声明(しょうみょう)」かぁ。。。

・・・え?。。。声明って何か、ですって?

「声明」っていうのは、日本の伝統音楽の一つでして。。。仏典に節をつけたもので、儀礼に用いられる、いわゆる「宗教音楽」なんです。

そもそも「声明」は、古代インドの学問分野(五明・ごみょう)の一つであり、五明とは、声明(音韻学・文法学)・工巧明(工芸・技術論)・医方明(医学)・因明(倫理学)・内明(自己の宗旨の学問、仏教者の場合は仏教学)の5種類の学問分野を指すそうです。で、「声明」は日本への仏教伝来と共に伝わり定着したと言われています。

754年(天平勝宝4年)に東大寺大仏開眼法要のときに声明を用いた法要が行われた記録があり、奈良時代には、声明が盛んにおこなわれていたようです。

そして、平安時代初期に最澄・空海がそれぞれ声明を伝えて、天台聲明(天台宗はこう表記するそうです)・真言声明の基となりました。 またこの天台宗・真言宗以外の仏教宗派にも、各宗独自の声明があり、現在も継承されているそうなんです。

ちなみにこの「声明」の三音階(初重・二重・三重)が、「三重塔」の各層を意味すると言われています。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの「声明(しょうみょう)」で、いってみましょう!

Shomyo refers to the calling of God's name by the Brahman monks of India, the expression of prayer to God, and the versification and voicing of God's teachings (sutra); in other words, the act of chanting. From India, shomyo was transmitted to China, and along with Buddhism, from China to Japan, where it was adopted as part of esoteric Buddhism. The act of chanting shomyo was introduced as a method of salvation, an ascetic practice to be performed by believers themselves.

In the Tendai sect of Buddhism, during the late Heian Period, Ryonin (1072-1132) standardized and compiled the shomyo texts that had been introduced from China sometime in the middle of the 9th century, and built the original shomyo seminary at Raigoin, a temple in the Ohara region of Kyoto. From this time on, Tendai shomyo was called, Tendai Ohara Shomyo. To the south of Sanzenin, a temple in the heart of Ohara, runs the Ryo River, and to the north of it runs the Ritsu River. The Ryo flows wide in a gentle, curving motion, while the Ritsu's current is made up of a group of bouncing billows. By using these characteristics as a metaphor, shomyo was broken down into two styles: ryokyoku and rikkyoku. Simply put, ryokyoku shomyo might be described as foreboding and difficult to understand, as compared to rikkyoku shomyo, which is relatively easy-to-understand and easy-to-remember. Many of the ryokyoku texts are written in Bongo (Sanskrit transliterated into Japanese), and of those that are written in Kango (Chinese characters), most contain only one short extract from the original sutra. Rikkyoku, on the other hand, is made up of a collection of Kango verses. By repeating these phrases and adding a melody, the sutra began to sound like coherent musical compositions. This coherence gave rise to a form, and the flow of the melody created a tempo. The rikkyoku style is believed to have been the basis for many of the distinguishing features of Japanese music, and was later connected to the creation of Japanese traditional music. Which is to say, rikkyoku is musical and songlike whereas, in ryokyoku, chanting strikes the listener as being a stronger element. When structured, as in rikkyoku or music in general, singing becomes a method of communication between human beings. It is a method similar to speaking, which is structured by grammar. However, chanting is the act of linking oneself, as a human being, to God using the spiritual power of the voice. This is, at least, the ideal on which shomyo as it is found in esoteric Buddhism is based.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

しかし。。。何か足りない気が。。。あぁっ!そうかっ!
お地蔵さんに付き物の「赤い」よだれかけが。。。

・・・ええ、やっぱり「千体(戦隊)」ものには「レッド」がいないと(←ヒーローもののオチで来たねっ・笑)

・・・「京都」だと思った?(笑)
だって。。。♪今日~の今日~の大仏さんは・・・って、別に場所は限定していなかったじゃないっすか~(^0^)b

というわけで、本日より「いざ鎌倉編ふたたび」。
このブログでも遂に3回目の登場なんですね~^^

ハイ、こんにちは m(_ _)m

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さすがに3度目ともなると。。。というわけで、アングルを変えて失礼します(笑)

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・・・腹筋運動してるみたいっスね^^
で、さらに角度を変えると。。。

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・・・座椅子に体重かけてのけぞったら、そのままひっくり返った、というお茶の間によくある光景(笑)
「わかっててやったんだもんね~」なんて声が聞こえそうな表情にも見えたりして。。。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの大仏さんにちなんで「阿弥陀如来(=Amitabha)とその教え」で、いってみましょう!

Amitabha is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. Amitabha is the principal buddha in the Pure Land sect, a branch of Buddhism practiced mainly in East Asia, while in Vajrayana Amitabha is known for his longevity attribute and the aggregate of distinguishing and the deep awareness of individualities. According to these scriptures, Amitabha possesses infinite merits resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva named Dharmakara. "Amitabha" is translatable as "Infinite Light," hence Amitabha is often called "The Buddha of Infinite Light."

According to the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life (Mahayana Amitayus Sutra) Amitabha was, in very ancient times and possibly in another system of worlds, a monk named Dharmakara. In some versions of the sutra, Dharmakara is described as a former king who, having come into contact with the Buddhist teachings through the buddha Lokesvararaja, renounced his throne. He then resolved to become a buddha and so to come into possession of a buddhaksetra ("buddha-field", a realm existing in the primordial universe outside of ordinary space time, produced by a buddha's merit) possessed of many perfections. These resolutions were expressed in his forty-eight vows, which set out the type of buddha-field Dharmakara aspired to create, the conditions under which beings might be born into that world, and what kind of beings they would be when reborn there.

In the versions of the sutra widely known in China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, Dharmakara's eighteenth vow was that any being in any universe desiring to be born into Amitabha's Pure Land and calling upon his name even as few as ten times will be guaranteed rebirth there. His nineteenth vow promises that he, together with his bodhisattvas and other blessed Buddhists, will appear before those who call upon him at the moment of death. This openness and acceptance of all kinds of people has made the Pure Land belief one of the major influences in Mahayana Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism seems to have first become popular in northwest India/Pakistan and Afghanistan, from where it spread to Central Asia and China

The sutra goes on to explain that Amitabha, after accumulating great merit over countless lives, finally achieved buddhahood and is still alive in his land of Sukhavati, whose many virtues and joys are described.

The basic doctrines concerning Amitabha and his vows are found in three canonical Mahayana texts:

・The Larger Sukhavativyuha Sutra
・The Smaller Sukhavativyuha Sutra
・The Amitayurdhyana Sutra

Through his efforts, Amitabha created the "Pure Land" called Sukhavati (Sanskrit: "possessing happiness"). Sukhavati is situated in the uttermost west, beyond the bounds of our own world. By the power of his vows, Amitabha has made it possible for all who call upon him to be reborn into this land, there to undergo instruction by him in the dharma and ultimately become bodhisattvas and buddhas in their turn (the ultimate goal of Mahayana Buddhism). From there, these same bodhisattvas and buddhas return to our world to help yet more people.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

ではさらに角度を変えてっと。。。おや?

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お疲れのご様子で、ちょっと「居眠り」してしまったかのような。。。

・・・そう、これを「仏陀たね(うたたね)」と言うとか言わないとか(笑)

何だか深川に長居しすぎたようで。。。(^-^)y
そろそろおいとまいたしましょうかね~。

・・・と、見つけたのは。。。

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「三十三間堂」!? w(゜o゜)w
コレって、京都にあるんじゃないんですか~???

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そう、実はこの三十三間堂、正式には「江戸三十三間堂」と言いまして。。。江戸時代にココにあったそうなんです。

京都東山の三十三間堂(蓮華王院)で、「通し矢」が流行したのを受けて、寛永19年(1642年)11月、弓師備後という方が幕府より、当初浅草の土地を拝領し、京都三十三間堂を模した堂を建立したんだそうデス。翌寛永20年4月の落成の際には、徳川家光さんの命により、旗本の吉田久馬助重信さんという方が射初め(いぞめ)を行ったと言われています。

その後元禄11年(1698年)の勅額火事で焼失しましたが、元禄14年(1701年)にココ深川に再建されました。しかし明治5年(1872年)、江戸三十三間堂は廃止されることになり、お堂は再び破壊されてしまったそうです。。。

ちなみに、広重さんの「名所江戸百景」には、ココが「深川三十三間堂」として描かれています。

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ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日は本家本元の「三十三間堂」で、いってみましょう!

Sanju-sangen-dou is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama District of Kyoto, Japan. Officially known as "Renge-ou-in" (蓮華王院), or Hall of the Lotus King, Sanju-sangen-dou belongs to and is run by the Myoho-in temple, a part of the Tendai school of Buddhism. The temple name literally means Hall with thirty three spaces between columns, describing the architecture of the long main hall of the temple.

Taira no Kiyomori completed the temple under order of Emperor Go-Shirakawa in 1164. The temple complex suffered a fire in 1249 and only the main hall was rebuilt in 1266. In January, the temple has an event known as the Rite of the Willow (柳枝のお加持), where worshippers are touched on the head with a sacred willow branch to cure and prevent headaches. A popular archery tournament known as the Tooshiya (通し矢) is also held here on the same grounds since the Edo period. The duel between the famous warrior Miyamoto Musashi and Yoshioka Denshichirou, leader of the Yoshioka-ryuu, is popularly believed to have been fought just outside Sanju-sangen-dou in 1604.

The main deity of the temple is the Thousand Armed Kannon. The statue of the main deity was created by the Kamakura sculptor Tankei and is a National Treasure of Japan. The temple also contains one thousand life-size statues of the Thousand Armed Kannon which stand on both the right and left sides of the main statue in 10 rows and 50 columns. Of these, 124 statues are from the original temple, rescued from the fire of 1249, while the remaining 876 statues were constructed in the 13th century. The statues are made of Japanese cypress. Around the 1000 Kannon statues stand 28 statues of guardian deities. There are also two famous statues of Fujin and Raijin.

・・・という感じでしょうか。。。で、柱の陰から覗くイメージで、本日のタイトル「家政婦は見た!」・・・じゃなくて「観音像は見た!」にしてみたんですが、何か?(笑)

それにしても、その三十三間堂で思い浮かぶのは、あの童謡。。。

♪きょう~のきょう~の大仏さんは、天火で焼~けてな~
三十三間堂は、焼け残った~。。。

・・・あ、そうだ、その大仏さんに、会いに行きましょう!(←唐突に新たな展開へ・笑)

さて、そろそろ「富岡八幡宮」を後にして。。。ん、んんっ!?

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こんな所に「鉄橋」があるんですかぁ???
あ・・・ホントだっ!w(゜0゜)w

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橋が架かっていた当時の上の写真が味わい深いので、何となくただ「放置」されてるみたいで(T-T)

おや、他にもあるんですね~^^

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そもそも、何でこんな所に架かってるんでしょうか?

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・・・ははぁ~っ、なるほど。。。しかもコレ「重要文化財」なんですねっ!(^0^)/
しかも渡ることもできるんです!

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はこの「橋」にちなんで、「日本橋」をば。

Nihonbashi is a business district of Chuo, Tokyo, Japan which grew up around the bridge of the same name which has linked two sides of the Nihonbashi River at this site since the 17th century. The first wooden bridge was completed in 1603, and the current bridge made of stone dates from 1911. The district covers a large area to the north and east of the bridge, reaching Akihabara to the north and the Sumida River to the east. Otemachi is to the west and Yaesu and Ginza to the south.

The Nihonbashi district was a major mercantile center during the Edo period: its early development is largely credited to the Mitsui family, who based their wholesaling business in Nihonbashi and developed Japan's first department store, Mitsukoshi, there. The Edo-era fish market formerly in Nihonbashi was the predecessor of today's Tsukiji fish market. In later years, Nihonbashi emerged as Tokyo's predominant financial district.

The Nihonbashi bridge first became famous during the 1600s, when it was the eastern terminus of the Nakasendou and the Toukaidou, roads which ran between Edo and Kyoto. During this time, it was known as Edobashi, or "Edo Bridge." In the Meiji era, the wooden bridge was replaced by a larger stone bridge, which still stands today. It is the point from which Japanese people measure distances: highway signs that report the distance to Tokyo actually state the number of kilometers to Nihonbashi.

・・・という感じでしょうか。

では重要文化財の鉄橋を、渡ってみましょう!(嬉)

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なるほど、2つの工法で作られているのが、当時は画期的だったんですね~。
この橋から、日本の橋作りは変わっていった、そのきっかけなんですか。。。(^-^)

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ずっとずっと、未来を見守る「鉄橋」でいてほしいです。。。

・・・そう、絶対に「撤去(てっきょう)」しないでね(笑)

さて、いよいよこの「富岡八幡宮」の本題へ。。。
実はココ「江戸勧進相撲」の発祥の地なんですね~。

まずは本殿でお参りをば。。。

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で、ふと脇に目をやると。。。(>_<)

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あ、、、もうおみくじは結構デス(笑)
では先へと進みましょう!

・・・と、こんなのがあります^^

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「横綱力士碑」って書いてありますね~(^-^)/

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あ、こりゃぁ江戸時代のお相撲さんですね(驚)

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そもそも、ココ「富岡八幡宮」は、江戸勧進相撲発祥の地として有名でして。。。江戸時代の相撲興業は京・大阪から始まったそうなんですが、揉め事などのトラブルが多くしばしば禁令が出ていました。

その後禁令が緩み、貞享元年(1684)に江戸幕府より、春と秋の2場所の勧進相撲開催が許されます。で、その場所に選ばれたのがココの境内だったんだそうです。以降約100年間にわたって本場所がここ富岡八幡宮でおこなわれ、その間に定期興行制や番付制も確立されていきました。後に本場所は、本所にある回向院に移っていきますが、その基礎は富岡八幡宮で築かれ、現在の大相撲へと繋がっていくことになったと言われています。

今でも、新横綱誕生時には、相撲協会立会いのもと横綱力士碑への刻名式がおこなわれ、新横綱の土俵入りが奉納されています。また両側には伊藤博文、山県有朋、大隈重信といった賛同者の名も見られます。。。広く各界から協賛を得て建立されたってコトですよね~。

ではこのあたりで、いつものやつを。
本日はその「相撲」について、いってみましょう!

まずはその起源から。。。

Sumo is a competitive full-contact sport where a wrestler (rikishi) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyou) or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally. It is generally considered to be a gendai budou (a modern Japanese martial art), though this definition is incorrect as the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, and even today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from the days when sumo was used in the Shinto religion. Life as a rikishi is highly regimented, with rules laid down by the Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal "sumo stables" known in Japanese as heya where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition.

Over the rest of Japanese recorded history, sumo's popularity has changed according to the whims of its rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife. The form of wrestling combat probably changed gradually into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent. The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later.

Also, it is believed that a ring, defined as something other than simply the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, came into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the then principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point wrestlers would wear loose loincloths, rather than the much stiffer mawashi of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed kesho-mawashi during the bout, whereas today these are worn only during pre-tournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period.

Professional sumo (大相撲) can trace its roots back to the Edo period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment. The original wrestlers were probably samurai, often rounin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. Current professional sumo tournaments began in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine in 1684, and then were held in the Ekou-in in the Edo period. They have been held in the Ryougoku Kokugikan since 1909, though the Kuramae Kokugikan had been used for the tournaments in the post-war years until 1984.

・・・という感じでしょうか。
では続きまして、「相撲と神道との関係について」も少々。

Shinto has historically been used as a means for Japanese nationalism and ethnic identity, especially prior to the end of World War II. It has served to symbolize and provide a sense of belonging, to identify and unify the Japanese people culturally, and to serve as a barrier demarcating the Japanese from other peoples, providing them with a sense of cultural uniqueness. In its association with Shinto, sumo has also been seen as a bulwark of Japanese tradition.

Shinto ritual pervades every aspect of sumo. Before a tournament, two of the gyouji functioning as Shinto priests enact a ritual to consecrate the newly-constructed dohyou, and various Shinto rituals are associated even with the practice dohyou at heya. Both the dohyou-iri, or ring-entering ceremonies performed by the top two divisions before the start of their wrestling day, and in the rituals performed by both combatants immediately before a bout, are derived from Shinto. It retains other Shinto associations as well. The yokozuna's ring-entering ceremony is regarded as a purification ritual in its own right, and is occasionally performed at Shinto shrines for this purpose.

・・・ってなとこですね m(_ _)m

では石碑の裏手に回って、歴代の刻まれた横綱のお名前を拝見しましょうかね^^

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でもって、次は。。。

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・・・何か下の方へ行くにつれて、方向がブレていくような(笑)
で、直近はと言うと。。。

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ん~っ。。。(論外な方が・笑)
まぁ、人生いろいろですから^^

さてココで突然ですがクイズですっ!
土俵の下に埋められているものは、一体何でしょう?

答えは「洗米、するめ、昆布、塩、かやの実、かち栗」の6品で、「鎮めもの」っていうんだそうです。。。

・・・なるほど、昨今の相撲業界の騒動を見る限り、相撲部屋にある土俵の「鎮めもの」は、あんまり機能していないかも(笑)

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